FIG Commission 5

Working Group 5.2 - Reference Frame in Practice

Technical Manuals, Standards and Fact Sheets

Fact sheet(s) on

GNSS CORS - Standards and Best Practices for GNSS and CORS V3.1

GNSS CORS - Reference Frames and Datums V10

GNSS CORS - Principles V2

GNSS CORS - Linking to ITRF V10

GNSS CORS - Calibration and Testing for GNSS and CORS V3.2

WGS 84 (prepared by Matt Higgins, 1999) – Scroll to Appendix 1 of the paper “Reference Frames in Practice: The Role of Professional, Scientific, Standards and Commercial Organisations” by Cross, Higgins and Lott.

The USA Department of Defense World Geodetic Datum 1984: its definition and relationship with local geodetic systems, TR8350.2.

Grid North, Magnetic North & True North

Calculating the distance between two points using their National Grid references

Guidelines for Classical Real Time GNSS Positioning (NGS, USA)


The standards found on this web site may specify, for geographic information, methods, tools and services for data management (including definition and description), acquiring, processing, analyzing, accessing, presenting and transferring such data in digital/electronic form between different users, systems and locations.

Global information


Please also note that more information about GDA can be found here.

Great Britain


New Zealand

A comprehensive page with several fact sheets and reports on various issues can be found here